Atlantean Research Journal, and Atlantis from 1950 cont.

The Head of Medusa, By Edgerton Sykes (Summary on lecture May 26th Caxton Hall)

Youngest of the Gorgons; her dispute with Athena, which resulted in her hair turning into snakes and her glance turning those into stone; and, finally, her death at the hands of Perseus, armed by the might and wit of Athena, on his way to rescue Andromeda, always appealed to Edgerton Sykes as being worthy to investigate even though the task of unraveling the myths around it is great.

The wars in the middle seas have gone on for centuries, and even a casual glance at Greek legends we see wars involving religions. "In my opinion, this dates back to a time when the descendants of the Atlantean refugees had populated the fertile Mediterranean Basin, and were defending themselves from the Indo-German and Semetic invaders." "We find traces of this dispute in the earliest stages of Greek Myth, with the revolt of the Titans and the Giants against the Olympian Gods, which must represent an early stage in the age long struggle between the followers of Sea Gods as represented by Poseidon and the followers of the Land Gods as represented by the Olympian pantheon, headed by Zeus and Athene. Later there was a period when the Sea Gods reigned in Athens, when Poseidon Erechtheus, the king with the half serpent totem, was worshipped as a god. The festival of the Panathec, depicting the battle of the Giants, dates from this time. Many of the Athenian rulers had serpentine totems, until the time when the Pelasgians, or men of the sea, were driven from the mainland by the early Greek invaders, perhaps

the Achae'ans. The interesting point here is that Poseidon first came into Athenian history as a breeder of horses, and everywhere he was worshipped horse racing was general. The Carthaginians, a later people, had horses on their coins, and built equestrian statues wherever they went. Poseidon was the reputed father of two horses, Pegasus by medusa, and Arion by Demeter: horse races in his honor were held in the Isthmus of Corinth." The Sea people have left no record of their side of the conflict, but it is clear the background of hatred and oppression is there from the beginning to the time of the accusation that Posiedon had seduced medusa in one of Athena's Temples, which appears to indicate the opening by medusa of a temple to Poseidon in an area sacred to Athene. The undercurrents show that when ever poseidon backed a hero the hero was attacked by Zeus, and vice versa which shows how long the hostilities historically lasted. The family tree of Medusa is very interesting:

Pontus, the Sea God, had a son Phorcys, who married Ceto. They had six daughters: The tree Graiae, Pephredo, Enyo, and Dino; and had three Gorgons, Stheno, Eurayle, and Medusa.

By Hecate, Phorcys, also had a daughter, Scylla. Her cousin Poseidon, was the father of Charybdis by Gea, of Polythemus by Thoosis, of Triton by Amphitrite the Nereid. Gea was also the mother of Typheus by Tartarus. Poseidon- 2 children with Medusa------- Pegasus and Chrysaor, who married Kalirrhoe and had two children, Geyron and Echidna. The first was killed by Hercules, while the second married Typheus, son of Gea, and had six children: Orthos, the Two-headed dog; the Theban Sphinx; the Chimeria; the Dog Cerberus; the Hydra or Echidna Lernaea; and the Nemean Lion; several of whom were killed by Hercules, as shown below. The point is they were all totems of poseidon and were attempted to be exterminated by Hercules and his followers as clans that were victims of war which were over run by Land Gods worshippers. Whether the war was religious, or economic by nature is unknown or the battle between matriarchy and patriarchy was the catalist. The battles Hercules has against these monsters is proof enough of Poseidon's memory was what Hercules was after to be destroyed. At the time of the Medusa episode hercules specialized in matriarchy clan attacks, and went after the 'sisterhoods' wherever he could find them whose members ranked as Nereids or Sea Nymphs. One of these was headed by the three gorgons, others by the Scylla, and the Charybdis. There was a male clan headed by Typheus

Who may have been in Greece, Scylla and Charybdis in Italy, the Graiae in Madeira, and the Gorgons in the Canaries or the Azores. Andromeda, who was rescued by Perseus was the daughter of an African Chief, and was either a hostage or a pupil of the Gorgons. Perseus himself has egyptian connections, which may explain his political interests in another African Princess. Perseus lands an attack on Graiae and his weapon was supposed to be 'one eye and one tooth' ( we do not know if it refers to a catamaran ram front on the boat). He murders many women, and moves on to the next Island of Gorgons, perhaps the Island which had once been Calypso's, for being the daughter of Atlas, she was also under the ban of the land gods. In regards to Medusa hair it is likened to squid or cuttle fish with two eyes resembling a football. "That this was the Totem of the Medusae is shown by the numerous representations found on Minoan pottery, Crete being one of the centers of the Sea Religion destroyed by Hercules, as mentioned above. The turn to stone was the venom that a poisonous octopus or some cuttle fish can do in paralyzing the human body to a point of not moving, coma, or death. Hypnosis has been suggested, but is to recent a comment to not point out the violent outcome to her gaze, more the animal freezes then is hypnotized by its own reaction. The Medusae Clan had an existence based on the finding of Paul LeCour in a temple of a stone drawing of a squid accompanied with the remains of a jelly fish, in a passage tumulus at Pornic in Brittany, and also discovered in a Basque tomb. One may suppose that in some rockey pool in a cave on the seashore, the Medusae kept their totem squids and jellyfish, and that it was through this secret entrance that Perseus made his way. "This view is confirmed by the use of a brightly polished shield or mirror, as even to this day the method of fishing for octopus or squid is, at night, with the aid of a bright light to dazzle them. The mirror could have been used in this manner by reflecting the light from the mouth of the cave onto the surface of the pool. Normally the squids and the jelly fish would be kept in a state of torpor by constant feeding, except when it was desired to sacrifice to them, in which case they would be left without food for a day or so." Perseus murdered Medusa then rescued Andromeda who was held hostage while the other Gorgon sisters pursued him and survived only to be killed later by Hercules. Perseus with his victory took the symbol of the Gorgons as his own totem. The possiblity that both Poseidon and Zeus may have at one time been matriarchal is not ruled out, since matriarchy was common in the ancient world before prolific male deities. The fact that most of the women were in charge of major temples and based on the diffusion of their temples were centers simaler to places of oracles like Sybils who advised sailors the weather, or to where to sail. Unfortunately, outside of the Periplus of Hanno very little information of what the mariners faith was or believed. The situation is worsened the fact that until Plato studied the whole of the middle seas and before the writing of Timaeus and Critias, greek philosophers abstained from vulgar sea people or their stories thus most of the records have dissipated. One of the best accounts is by Diodorus who refers to the Amazons and the Gorgons. The Amazons lived in the Island of Hesperia (or Hespridies) off the Western Coast, which was of great size, full of fruit trees of every kind, with multitudes of flocks and herds, but no grain. Their Queen was Myrina, having an army of 30,000 foot, and 3,000 horses, proceeded to attack the Atlanteans who dwelt in a prosperous country and possesed great cities. After capture of Cerne, which she put to the sword, the Atlanteans capitulated. After peace had been made Myrina built a new city to take the place of Cerne and gave it her name. She also built Cherronesus on the Peninsula in Lake Tritonis. The Atlanteans, however, were frequently being raided by the Gorgons, and asked myrina to help them to stop. She took three thousand women captive and killed after they tried to revolt and killed quite a few Amazons. The dead were buried in three mounds called Amazon Mounds. Diodorus concludes "But the Gorgons, grown strong again in later days, were subdued a second time by Perseus, and in the end both they and the Amazons were entirely destroyed by Hercules, whilst Lake Tritonis vanished in a earthquake."

"In spite of what Diodorus says I am inclined to the opinion that by the time of Perseus, the

remants of this matriarchal Poseidon worshipping tribe, the Gorgons, living on the Islands in the

Western ocean, had sunk to the level of being a clan of priestesses of the Poseidon cult, much as

the Levites to the Israelites and the Magi to the Persians."

The attack of Perseus was a precursor to Hercules larger campaign, which was piracy with a backing. The Squid totem was in relation to the Hydra clan almost the same. As far as the size of Giant Squids the Ancients knew about it in reports of Pliny who in 77 A.D. in his 'Natural History' mentions them as making nightly raids from the sea on the curing stations on the shore for salted tuna, while Aelian, writing 160 years later, refers to one that used to crush the barrels of salted fish with its tentacles.

"The identification of the squid with the Kraken was, however, only effected in the Northern lattitudes, and the first referance I can trace is by Olaus Magnus in 1555, although the actual name is perhaps due to Paulinius, who wrote of a creature infesting the coast of Norway resembling Gesner's Heracleticon. He was followed by Eric Pontoppidian, Bishop of Bergan, whose Natural History, published in 1759, refers to the Kraken by name; while Denys de Montfort in his Natural History , published about 1790, gives a drawing of a gigantic cuttle fish grasping a ship in its tentacles. I am afraid that this drawing is some-what exaggerated, but his story that a captian who cut off an arm 25 feet long from one of these creatures which tried to drown a member of his crew is probably correct. One hundred and fifty years ago, one of these creatures was cast ashore in Denmark. It was 21 feet long with tentacles of 18 feet, making a total of nearly 40 feet. Berthelot, French Consul in Tenerife in 1861 saw one which had a body 16-18 feet long, while in 1873 one was encountered by fisherman off Newfoundland, which was reputed to be 74 feet in length."

Albatross Expedition, Island traces off Amazon Estuary, D. Nyheter of Stockholm

A series of deep sedimentation cores taken by the Albatross expedition at a point about 600 miles off the Amazon Estuary, have been under investigation by Dr. Boerje Kullenberg of the Gothenburg Marine Institute. Dr. Kullenberg reports that these samples, taken from twenty to thirty feet below the sedimentary surface, show traces of typical fresh water plants, of land river and lake mixed with sand.

Discoveries at Tabago, Pamela O'Reilly

Mr. Cambridge, Warden of Tabago, has an extensive and varied collection of both Carib and Arawak relics. Digging in the south east part of the Island, in about 10 feet of ground, the warden came upon a burial ground, which he states with some assurance contained at least five bodies. Innumerable stone axes, cooking utensils and some stone implements had been buried with them and indicate that these people possessed a certain degree of culture. The stone implements some were of granite, others of a hard green stone, and they were beautifully polished and sharpened which a few were grooved. There were hundreds of pottery pieces, as well as replicas of birds, squirrels, fish, bison and iguanas. It is interesting to note that the existence of the bison in the West Indies is unknown, therefore these people must have had contact with the mainland at one time or another. The bowls although fragments were fashioned in the shape of a Armadillo, or a turtle. Another bowl 2/3rds intact was in the shape of a square with well defined ridges running round the inside. Part of a water pitcher, with a spout remaining was one of the larger pieces. Faces of either gods or the natives with squat features and thick lips had also been fashioned. These were fashioned on the handles of bowls.

Spear heads, or a more clumsey kind than the stone implements mentioned above, and battle axes, some of great weight were indicative that it was Caribs rather than Arawaks who settled in Tabago. Generally assumed around the 8th century, as the age of the bones found at Plymouth (southwest of Tabago) has been put at 1,000 years.

(Webmaster note- the strange part is that in the 8th Century A.D. before Columbus commercial trade had long since been established between the America's and that there are some extinct forms of Bison that it may refer to?)

1951 List of Atlantean Research Journal

 Atlantean Research Journal List of years and articles.


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